Can be caused by:
- Progressive corneal thinning due to ectatic degeneration, Terrien's degeneration, infections, or immune-related diseases such as in Mooren's ulcer and rheumatoid disease
- Iatrogenic during ocular surgery such as astigmatic or radial keratotomy
- Careful examination of other ocular structures involvement in cases of trauma.
- Prophylactic antibiotics.
- Soft bandage contact lens may be used for small perforations.
- Surgical management:
- Wound suturing.
- Cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive application, protected by a soft bandage contact lens.
- Penetrating pr tectonic keratoplasty.