Cotton-wool Spots

Multiple patches of cotton-wool spots and superficial flame-shaped hemorrhages. 

Clinical features:

  • Symptoms:
    • Asymptomatic
    • Various degree of blurry vision
  • Signs:
    • Localized, white-yellowish, fluffy areas of nerve fiber layer edema
    • Focal ischemia that causes axoplasmic flow interruption, results in drainage of axoplasmic content into the retina
  • Commonly found in many vascular diseases:
    • AIDS
    • Diabetic retinopathy
    • Hypertensive retinopathy
    • Collagen vascular diseases such as SLE, dermatomyositis and polyarteritis nodosa